Bibliographies and Referencing Guidelines

​Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging the sources of information and ideas you have used in an assignment. Students should use references (in the body of their essay/work) and a bibliography (at the end of your essay) to show where they obtained their information.​

Aquinas College uses a referencing style derived from the Harvard system.

Why do I need to reference?

  • to acknowedge the work of others and to avoid plagiarism

  • to allow the reader to verify quotations and use your sources to find further information

  • to enhance the credibility of your information

What do I need to reference?

  • ​direct quotations - when you use someone else's exact words (including interviews and emails)

  • ideas or research you have summarised - when you use a brief account of someone else's work, opinions, theories or data

  • paraphrased material - when you convert someone else's ideas to your own words

  • figures, charts statistics, graphs and tables you have copied

How do I quote a reference in my essay?

When you cite a reference (use someone's idea or research), you need an in-text reference, giving the name of the author (if no author then provide title/heading) and the year of publication.

When you directly quote from a source, you must give the author's name, year of publication and page number. (A 30 words or less quote can be included in your text, using single quotation marks.)

The full reference must be listed in the bibliography at the end of your essay.

Example (one author): As Ferguson, (2003, p.67), Chairman of Delta Airlines notes, '...the world has undergone a technological revolution over the past fifty years.'

Example (two authors): Jones and Hackett (1991) theorized that...

Example (multiple authors): Carter et al. (1989) discussed library research methods.​

(Further examples of referencing may be obtained from the Teacher Librarian or class teacher)

Lengthy quotations are given in separate paragraphs, which are usually indented from the margin. Such in-text references must also have the author's name, year of publication and page number cited.​

To cite a web page in the text of an assignment, give the author or title of the site and date of the site's creation or most recent update in the text of your report.

Examples: ​The Bodyshop (2003) or The Bodyshop's Website (2013). 

Don Chipp was a Liberal Member of the House of Representatives (Australian Democrats 2004)

How do I write a Bibliography?

Arrange your resources in alphabetical order, not indented, but leaving a space between each one. Punctuation should be as shown below:


See examples below with one author, two editors and no author (title entry).

Author's surname Initial Year of publication, Title of book, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.


Wilson P 2002, Trends and issues in Australian crime, 2nd edn, AIC, Canberra.

Douglas M & Watson C (eds.) 2003, Networks, Macmillan, London

The CCH Macquarie dictionary of business 2003, CCH Australia, North Ryde, NSW.

Journal Articles. When viewed on an online database, the date viewed and URL must be added.

Author's surname Initial Year of publication, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue, Page numbers OR viewed Day Month Year, URL


Griffith A 1995, 'Coordinating family and school: mothering for schooling'. Education Policy Analysis Archives, vol. 3, no. 1, viewed 12 February 1997, <>

Newspaper Articles When viewed online, the date viewed and URL must be added.

Author's surname Initial Year, 'Article title', Newspaper Title, Day Month, page number (if given), viewed Day Month Year, Name of database or URL.


Pianin E 2001, 'As coal's fortunes climb, mountains tremble in W.Va', The Washington Post, 25 February, p. 103, viewed 8 March 2001, Electric Library Australasia.

Cleary P & Lewis S 2001, 'It's the end of a long boom', The Australian Financial Review, 8 March, viewed 8 march 2001,

Video Recordings and Sound Recordings Follow basic rules for books, but add the designation (e.g. video recording, CD Rom)

Example: Hacker Attack 2002, video recording, SBS, Sydney.

World Wide Web Sites Author/editor or compiler Year of the most recent version, Title, version number (if applicable), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed date, URL.


Anderson J (Minister for Transport and Regional Services) 2000, CASA approves avgas contamination test, media release, Department of Transport and Regional Services, Canberra, viewed 23 January 2000,

The Body Shop Australia 2003, The Body Shop Australia, viewed 31 January 2003,

​​​Personal Emails

Sender's surname, Initial Year of posting, email, Day and Month of posting, e-mail address.

Example: Davis A 2002, email, 24 April,


Examples:  Davis A 2002, email, 24 April,

Hacker Attack 2002, video recording, SBS, Sydney.

Wilson P 2002, Trends in Australian crime, 2nd edn, Penguin, Melbourne.